Sandstone Conservation in Chinook Country

Written by: Fraser Shaw, Heritage Conservation Advisor

Paskapoo sandstone has been maligned for poor durability, compared to Indiana limestone and sandstones from Ohio or Spain that have been used for conservation projects in Alberta. But to be fair to our homegrown sandstone, masonry in general suffers in Alberta’s climate and in the intense sunlight, drying winds and freeze-thaw cycling in areas like southern Alberta. De-icing salts used for public safety during the long winter months are the nemesis of historic masonry and will relentlessly attack sandstone, limestone and granite alike. How stone is laid in a wall, masonry mortar composition, and design details all contribute to how stone performs over time.

An imposing landmark in downtown Lethbridge, Southminster United Church is a large 1913 building (additions in 1914 and 1950) with a bold Modernist 1961 chapel. The Classical Revival original building dominates with its symmetrical front facade, prominent pediment, monumental engaged columns and exterior of buff-coloured brick with sandstone details. Interestingly, while stone decoration of the 1950 north addition superficially resembles the regional sandstone, it is actually imported Indiana limestone, a different and relatively durable material. Other notable Lethbridge buildings with this combination of local and imported stone are the Galt Museum (former Galt Hospital) and the Bowman Arts Centre (Manual Training School), both Provincial Historic Resources. Lethbridge designated Southminster United Church as a Municipal Historic Resource in 2016.

Circa 1915 photograph from the southwest showing the original 1913 building with its prominent columns and pediment and the 1914 hall addition at left. Source: PA-4032-61, University of Calgary Glenbow Archives Collection.
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Documenting a Heritage Tree: Digital Preservation of Calgary’s Stampede Elm

Editor’s note: Digital documentation of the Stampede Elm was conducted by Dr. Peter Dawson and Madisen Hvidberg from the Department of Anthropology and Archaeology at the University of Calgary, in partnership with the City of Calgary. A digital archive post of the Stampede Elm, created by University of Calgary archaeology PhD students Christina Robinson and Madisen Hvidberg, can be found here.

Written by: Madisen Hvidberg, MA

When asked to think of something that is “heritage,” what comes to mind? Most likely you will think of things like grand monuments, temples and old buildings. Maybe you know some specific UNESCO World Heritage Sites, or you think of archaeological heritage like excavations and artifacts. No matter what you think of, I would guess that it is probably unlikely that your first thought was…a tree.

Biological and living heritage sites can also be testaments to history. Gardens, parks and trees can represent past initiatives for beautification or utilitarian uses of the plants, and can be just as much of a part of the heritage of a place as buildings or objects. In North America much of the biological heritage within major cities is related to European settler aesthetic for planted trees and gardens, a desire to add more wind breaks in open areas, and the City Beautiful Movement of the 1890s and 1900s. The City Beautiful Movement was a reform philosophy popular in the early development of North American cities, which suggested beautification would promote social harmony and as such led to the establishment of many parks, gardens and tree-lined boulevards.

Calgary’s History of Trees

Calgary was no exception to the influences of this movement, which were largely brought to the city by William Pearce who envisioned Calgary as a “city of trees”. Pearce was a surveyor, engineer and statistician, and when appointed as an inspector for the Dominion Land Agencies in 1884, he used his position to reserve land along the north side of the Bow River. That land today is Calgary’s landmark boulevard Memorial Drive. Pearce reserved other lands for parks and started a local tree farm to find different types of trees that could grow in Calgary’s climate, with the goal of encouraging Calgarians to plant their own gardens and groves.

William Pearce, ca 1880. Source: Glenbow Archives, NA-339-1.
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Hidden in plain sight: The story of Edmonton’s Bowker Building

Written by: Dane Ryksen (History undergraduate, University of Alberta)

Editor’s note: Since 2017, Dane Ryksen has been documenting Edmonton’s built heritage on Instragram. Follow @_citizen_dane_ for even more of his research and photography. All photos below were taken by Ryksen unless otherwise noted.

Symbology of all kinds litters the facades of Edmonton’s Bowker Building. Up, down, left, right, there’s something to be found. The Chief and arms. The Wild Rose, symbolizing Alberta itself. The heads of bison, symbolizing power, strength and durability. The Queen’s Crown on each door handle, symbolizing the monarchy. Even its long-time name, ‘The Natural Resources Building,’ a symbol of Alberta’s bountiful wealth.

For being in the throes of the Great Depression, all its bangles, wingdings and baubles may have seemed like another instance of government waste. But for the United Farmers of Alberta it came with good reason. When they commissioned the building it was seen as righting a fifteen-year-old wrong.

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Municipal Historic Resource designation refresher series: Determining eligibility

Written by: Peter Melnycky, Historian, Historic Resources Management Branch

Editor’s note: Welcome to the first in a series of blog posts developed with municipalities in mind who either have or are considering undertaking Municipal Historic Resource designation. This series is intended to serve as a refresher on how to evaluate sites, develop Statements of Significance, determine periods of significance and develop Statements of Integrity.

For more information, please review the “Creating a Future” manuals available here or contact Rebecca Goodenough, Manager, Historic Places Research and Designation at rebecca.goodenough@gov.ab.ca or 780-431-2309.

Determining eligibility

In our first post, we will be discussing how to determine if a historic place is eligible for designation.

Historic resources include structures, buildings, landscape and archaeological features, all of which can be considered for protection by a municipality. Under the Historical Resources Act, municipalities have the ability to designate historic resources under a bylaw to ensure their protection.

historic-resources-act
The Historical Resources Act (Source: Historic Resources Management Branch).

In order to be considered for protection as a Municipal Historic Resource, a site needs to:

  • Be an eligible resource type
  • Possess historical significance
  • Have sufficient material integrity

If a site meets all three of these of these criteria, it can be considered for Municipal Historic Resource designation.

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Municipal Historic Resource spotlight: Lethbridge

Written by: Ron Kelland, MA, MLIS

Over the past few months, some of Alberta’s municipalities have been protecting their built heritage by designating a number of new Municipal Historic Resources (MHRs). These resources are structures and other sites that the municipality has deemed to be of significant heritage value to their community. Like Provincial Historic Resources, municipal designations are listed on the Alberta Register of Historic Places. Municipally designated properties also qualify for conservation grants from the Alberta Historic Resources Foundation.

The City of Lethbridge recently added six new MHRs to the Alberta Register of Historic Places. As of May 31, 2019, the City of Lethbridge has 26 designated MHRs listed.

The most recent listed designations by the City of Lethbridge are:

Watson Residence

Located in the Victoria Park neighbourhood on 14th Street South between 3rd and 4th Avenue, the Watson Residence is an Edwardian Foursquare with classical revival detailing and ornamentation. It was built in 1910/11. It has heritage value as an example of residential construction during Lethbridge’s rapid expansion in the pre-First World War period, and as an excellent example of an urban foursquare home. It was also the residence of Allan James Watson, who was a long-serving superintendent of the Lethbridge School District.

Watson Residence, Lethbridge, Alberta
Watson Residence, Lethbridge, February 2019. Source: Historic Resources Management, Government of Alberta

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