The conservation of Circle L Ranch

Written by: Fraser Shaw, Heritage Conservation Advisor

If you’ve ever driven down the beautiful Cowboy Trail, chances are you’ve driven by at least a few historic ranches. Some of these ranches, like Bar U and E.P., have been operating for over a hundred years.

Another of those ranches is the Circle L Ranch, started by a storekeeper from Salt Lake City in the late 1800s. The site recently underwent a restoration project to help ensure historic small-scale ranching in remained intact and accessible. The ranch is a Provincial Historic Resource and an excellent example of an early family-run ranch in southern Alberta.

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Inside the Archives’ vault: It Happened at Vic

Written by: Sara King, Government Records Archivist, Provincial Archives of Alberta

Its film time again courtesy of the Provincial Archives of Alberta! Archival records, whether paper, photographic, film or audio, can very often provide more information about their subject than was originally intended.

Take It Happened at Vic. This silent drama production about a love triangle, created by Victoria Composite High School students in Edmonton in 1941, reveals how the school and neighbourhood looked at the time, hair and fashions typical of high school students, technology they were using such as cameras and cars, and the types of social activities that students might have been getting up to at the time (Or at the least the ones they would put on film). If the name Joe Shoctor jumps out at you from the opening credits, he went on to found the Citadel Theatre in Edmonton.


Inside the Archives’ vault: the shift to colour

Written by: Michael Gourlie, Government Records Archivist

When researchers first arrive at an archives, they often bring many stereotypes with them.  They may assume that the records are all about “early pioneer days,” the photographs are all black and white images of stern Victorian settlers, and the storage vaults look like something out of Raiders of the Lost Ark.


While they don’t look like something out of an Indiana Jones film, there are certainly many mysteries to uncover in the vaults of the Provincial Archives of Alberta. Source: Provincial Archives of Alberta.

While some elements of these impressions may be true, the Provincial Archives of Alberta (PAA) is anything but your stereotypical archives.  Its holdings include records from the 1640s to the 2010s in all media, including paper, photographs, motion picture film, tape recordings, and digital media. Although the records of the Government of Alberta comprise the bulk of its holdings, the PAA has acquired the records of individuals, families, businesses, and community groups that provide evidence of the political, cultural and economic evolution of the province.  A variety of researchers use these records, from genealogists to academic historians to even members of the public service seeking to understand past government programs.

One of the records that debunks the staid stereotypes of archives is a film titled “1967 in Selling Colour”. The Swift Canadian Company created the film to kick off a marketing campaign designed to coincide with both the Canadian centennial celebrations and the growing availability of colour television in Canada. Starting in black and white before shifting to glorious colour, the film is most definitely a time capsule of the way Canadian society viewed food, fashion, advertising, and the roles of men and women. The PAA received the film as a donation when Maple Leaf Foods, the successor firm of Swift Canadian, found the records prior to the demolition of its meat packing facilities in Edmonton.

To make these holdings more accessible, the PAA has digitized and placed them on various social media platforms. See for yourself whether or not Swift is the Meat!

Historic Lethbridge Chinatown now Provincial Historic Resource

Two historic buildings, located in one of Alberta’s oldest Chinatown districts, have been added to the list of Provincial Historic Resources. After agreement from the buildings’ owner Albert Leong, the Wing Wah Chong Co. and Bow On Tong Co. buildings in Lethbridge are now provincially-protected historic resources.

Restaurants were among the most common businesses established by Chinese entrepreneurs. The Wing Wah Chong building was, at one point, named New China Chop Suey. The faded Chinese lettering on the pediment is still visible today.
Restaurants were among the most common businesses established by Chinese entrepreneurs. The Wing Wah Chong building was, at one point, named New China Chop Suey. The faded Chinese lettering on the pediment is still visible today. Source: Galt Museum and Archives (P19800127000).

Chinese immigrants faced significant obstacles establishing their lives in Canada. The Chinese Head Tax (first passed in 1885 and subsequently raised twice) made it impossible for all but wealthy Chinese merchants to bring their wives over from China. Way Leong, who would go on to purchase both the Wing Wah Chong and Bow On Tong buildings, had the means bring his wife Florence to Canada in 1921, just two years before the Government of Canada effectively banned further Chinese immigration with the passage of the Chinese Immigration Act (often called the Chinese Exclusion Act). When Way and Florence Leong arrived in Alberta in the 1920s, there were very few Chinese merchant families in the province – one report indicates that there may have been as few as 16 married Chinese couples in Alberta in the 1920s.

Built in 1919, the Bow On Tong Co. Building is a reflection of early twentieth-century Chinese settlement and immigration. It’s also known for its longtime association with the Leong family, who purchased the building back in 1926. For the next 90 years, the Leong family operated an apothecary and Chinese goods importer, as well as hosted social and other activities for the small Chinese community in Lethbridge. Space for social activities was essential for Chinese immigrants in Lethbridge, who could not visit home nor bring their families to Canada due to the Chinese Immigration Act.

Euro-Canadian landlords were generally unwilling to rent commercial space to Chinese merchants. Mob violence and discriminatory bylaws confined Chinese-owned businesses to the western edge of Lethbridge,

Euro-Canadian landlords were generally unwilling to rent commercial space to Chinese merchants. Mob violence and discriminatory bylaws confined Chinese-owned businesses to the western edge of Lethbridge, outside of the downtown core. Source: Galt Museum and Archives (P20151006-990).

Built in 1909, the Wing Wah Chong Co. Building was one of the first commercial structures built along Second Avenue South and is highly significant as a rare example of a pre-World War I Chinese-owned commercial building.

The building was used not just as a commercial space, but also as a residence. Merchants were often the first point of contact for newly-arrived Chinese immigrants, so being able to provide a play to stay (no matter how small) for newcomers was an invaluable service.

The combined uses of the Wing Wah Chong Co. Building – restaurant, retail space, living quarters – are why there is such exceptional heritage value associated with it. It’s a reflection of the socio-economic structure of Chinese-Albertan communities.

For Albert Leong, owner of both buildings, having his properties finally designated as provincial historic resources is a big deal. “It means everything to me to have these buildings and my family home restored. These buildings show how people lived, how I lived, and what my community had to do to live. If they are gone, so will many of the stories of Chinese immigrants in Lethbridge.”

To see more pictures and information about these two important buildings, visit the following pages on the Alberta Register of Historic Places:

Wing Wah Chong Co. Building

Bow On Tong Co. Building


Municipal Heritage Resource spotlight: Lacombe

Written by: Ron Kelland, MA, MLIS

In June, we featured several buildings that the City of Lethbridge recently designated as Municipal Historic Resources (MHRs). But Lethbridge isn’t the only city that has been actively protecting its heritage resources and listing them on the Alberta Register of Historic Places. Over the past few months, the City of Lacombe has designated five places as MHRs and added them to the Alberta Register of Historic Places.

Lacombe has been one of Alberta’s most active communities in protecting its historic places. As an early community in the former Alberta Main Street Program, Lacombe has restored and maintained one of the largest historic downtown cores in the province. As of June 1, 2019, there are six sites in Lacombe designated as Provincial Historic Resources and seven designated as Municipal Historic Resources.

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Along the Riplinger Trail aka Riplinger Road

Written by: Ken Favrholdt, BA, MA (Geography, UBC)

Much is written about the Whoop-Up Trail, the famous 320 kilometre route from Fort Benton, Montana to Fort Macleod used by whisky traders between 1869 and 1874.

However, there was also another important route used during this period. The Riplinger Trail was an Indigenous trail across traditional Blackfoot territory and home of the Blood tribe. Part of the trail in Montana it is believed, was part of the Old North Trail, the ancient migration route—the so-called ice-free corridor—along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The Riplinger Trail was named after John Riplinger of the Northwestern Fur Company who built a post on the Marias River in Montana in 1869-70.

geological map of the region in the vicinity of the Bow and Belly Rivers, by George Dawson, 1884,
Part of the geological map of the region in the vicinity of the Bow and Belly Rivers, by George Dawson, 1884, showing the Riplinger Trail between Fort Macleod and the 49th parallel. Source:

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Blackfoot Stories: Chief Mountain and First Marriages

June is Indigenous Peoples’ Month, a time to honour the heritage and culture of First Peoples in Canada. June 21 also marks the annual National Indigenous Peoples Day. Here in Alberta , there are events happening around the province to celebrate the unique histories, cultures and contributions from First Nations, Métis and Inuit heritages.

Indigenous people have for thousands of years relied on the tradition of oral storytelling to pass down their history to future generations.

A few years ago, the Siksika Consultation Office received an Alberta Historical Resources Foundation grant and produced these two beautifully-shot vignettes featuring two significant stories from Blackfoot culture.

The first tells the story of Crowsnest Mountain and the birth of seasons. The second tells the story of the first marriages, based around Women’s Buffalo Jump south of present-day Cayley, Alberta.

Thanks to the Siksika Consultation Office for letting us share these important stories.